Curbing urban transport emissions is a narrow but critical piece in the broader fight against climate change, as cities from Paris to Jakarta re-orient their streets to promote public transit use and bicycle and walking paths.
“If politicians think electrification is going to save the day... and everybody’s going to go out and buy an electric vehicle, it’s just not going to work,” said Heather Thompson, CEO of the Institute for Transportation and Development Policy (ITDP).
这项研究看着四种情况进行运输：“像往常一样，”公共和私人车辆的大量电气化到2050年，城市的主要转变为非汽车运输，以及“高EV + Shift”组合。
“EV + Shift”情景是唯一估计2020 - 2015年排放的唯一一个，符合2015年巴黎气候变化协定的目标，这旨在将全球温度升至2摄氏度的“良好”。
The key is minimizing the overall number of vehicles on the road and electrifying the rest, said Thompson, whose nonprofit group developed and released the research in concert with the University of California, Davis.
研究发现，城市客运占世界气候变化的10％的气候变化排放量 - 但由于私人车辆在新兴经济体中更容易获得新兴经济体，这些排放量稳步增长。
Researchers acknowledged that putting into place a large-scale "EV + shift" combination would require a "vast global effort," likening it to the construction of the U.S. interstate highway system in the 1950s.
But the study catalogued examples of cities promoting effective land use and public transporation options that others could emulate.
在美国太平洋西北地区，波特兰推动了侦查法律，鼓励高密度开发 - 这使得步行更容易 - 而西雅图已经努力确保居民可以靠近高频总线路线。
“We have the solutions. We have the technology. We know which ones are more cost-effective. It’s really about political will,” Thompson told the Thomson Reuters Foundation.
More immediate, tangible steps to promote clean transport - like creating protected bike lanes and sidewalks and boosting rapid transit - would serve people where they already live, she noted.
“These are things that cities can do. It’s not about people moving - it’s about bringing those better transportation options to people wherever they live,” she said.
尽管如此，甚至逐渐改变城市设计和分区法律可能会产生大规模的政治反弹 - 与匆忙安装的道路障碍一样，旨在在早期大流行锁定期间在伦敦散步和骑自行车的空间。
A combination of inertia and entrenchment of old designs and thinking are major obstacles, said Brendan Shane, climate director at The Trust for Public Land, a nonprofit group.
“The idea that the road is the principal design feature for a new area… (and that) the car comes first and the people come second still tends to be dominant,” he said.
“It was so interesting because half the business owners were like 'We don’t have enough parking' and 'Our customers can't get there,’” she said.
“And the other (half) were like, 'We need less parking – our customers walk and bike to where we are. We want more space for our restaurant – less space for the cars.'”
Linda Hwang表示，美国在美国看到有形的福利，林达明，林达明，林达·汉·林达·王（Catre）的公共土地战略和创新总监Linda Hwang表示，如果有形的福利表示，投票倡议是有能力的。
“We see time and time again people making the choice to tax (themselves) if it means they’re going to get more parks, more trails, more public lands,” she said.
(Reporting by David Sherfinski. Editing by Laurie Goering for the Thomson Reuters Foundation, the charitable arm of Thomson Reuters)